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The king's brother Wilhelm , however, realized the significance of the innovation. After he became regent in , Prussia bought its first steel cannon from Krupp, which became the main arms manufacturer for the Prussian military.
The Franco-Prussian war was in part a contest of "Kruppstahl" versus bronze cannon. The success of German artillery spurred the first international arms race , against Schneider-Creusot in France and Armstrong in England.
Krupp was able to sell, alternately, improved artillery and improved steel shielding to countries from Russia to Chile to Siam.
In the Panic of , Alfred continued to expand, including the purchase of Spanish mines and Dutch shipping, making Krupp the biggest and richest company in Europe but nearly bankrupting it.
He was bailed out with a 30 million Mark loan from a consortium of banks arranged by the Prussian State Bank. In and Krupp held competitions known as Völkerschiessen , which were firing demonstrations of cannon for international buyers.
These were held in Meppen , at the largest proving ground in the world; privately owned by Krupp. He took on 46 nations as customers.
At the time of his death in , he had 75, employees, including 20, in Essen. In his lifetime, Krupp manufactured a total of 24, guns; 10, for the German government and 13, for export.
Krupp established the Generalregulativ as the firm's basic constitution. The company was a sole proprietorship , inherited by primogeniture , with strict control of workers.
Krupp demanded a loyalty oath, required workers to obtain written permission from their foremen when they needed to use the toilet and issued proclamations telling his workers not to concern themselves with national politics.
In return, Krupp provided social services that were unusually liberal for the era, including " colonies " with parks, schools and recreation grounds - while the widows' and orphans' and other benefit schemes insured the men and their families in case of illness or death.
Essen became a large company town and Krupp became a de facto state within a state , with "Kruppianer" as loyal to the company and the Krupp family as to the nation and the Hohenzollern family.
Krupp's paternalist strategy was adopted by Bismarck as government policy, as a preventive against Social Democratic tendencies, and later influenced the development and adoption of Führerprinzip by Adolf Hitler.
The Krupp social services program began about , when it was found that there were not sufficient houses in the town for firm employees, and the firm began building dwellings.
By ten houses were ready for foremen, and in the first houses for workingmen were built in Alt Westend. Neu Westend was built in and By , houses were provided, many being given rent free to widows of former workers.
A cooperative society was founded in which became the Consum-Anstalt. Profits were divided according to amounts purchased.
Bath houses were provided and employees received free medical services. Technical and manual training schools were provided. Krupp proclaimed he wished to have "a man come and start a counter-revolution " against Jews, socialists and liberals.
In some of his odder moods, he considered taking the role himself. According to historian William Manchester , his great grandson, Krupp would interpret these outbursts as a prophecy fulfilled by the coming of Hitler.
Krupp's marriage was not a happy one. His wife Bertha not to be confused with their granddaughter , was unwilling to remain in polluted Essen in Villa Hügel , the mansion which Krupp designed.
She spent most of their married years in resorts and spas, with their only child, a son. After Krupp's death in , his only son, Friedrich Alfred , carried on the work.
The father had been a hard man, known as "Herr Krupp" since his early teens. Friedrich Alfred was called "Fritz" all his life, and was strikingly dissimilar to his father in appearance and personality.
He was a philanthropist, a rarity amongst Ruhr industrial leaders. Part of his philanthropy supported the study of eugenics.
Fritz was a skilled businessman, though of a different sort from his father. Fritz was a master of the subtle sell, and cultivated a close rapport with the Kaiser, Wilhelm II.
Under Fritz's management, the firm's business blossomed further and further afield, spreading across the globe. He focused on arms manufacturing, as the US railroad market purchased from its own growing steel industry.
Fritz Krupp authorized many new products that would do much to change history. In Krupp developed nickel steel , which was hard enough to allow thin battleship armor and cannon using Nobel's improved gunpowder.
In , Krupp bought Gruson in a hostile takeover. It became Krupp-Panzer and manufactured armor plate and ships' turrets. In Rudolf Diesel brought his new engine to Krupp to construct.
In Krupp bought Germaniawerft in Kiel , which became Germany's main warship builder and built the first German U-boat in Fritz married Magda and they had two daughters: Bertha — and Barbara — ; the latter married Tilo Freiherr von Wilmowsky — in Fritz was arrested on 15 October by Italian police at his retreat on the Mediterranean island of Capri , where he enjoyed the companionship of forty or so adolescent Italian boys.
He had a subsequent publicity disaster and was found dead in his chambers not long after. It was alleged suicide, but foul play was suspected and details of the event were vague.
His wife was institutionalized for insanity. Upon Fritz's death, his teenage daughter Bertha inherited the firm. In , the firm formally incorporated as a joint-stock company , Fried.
Krupp Grusonwerk AG. However, Bertha owned all but four shares. Kaiser Wilhelm II felt it was unthinkable for the Krupp firm to be run by a woman.
By imperial proclamation at the wedding, Gustav was given the additional surname "Krupp," which was to be inherited by primogeniture along with the company.
In , Gustav bought Hamm Wireworks to manufacture barbed wire. In , Krupp began manufacturing stainless steel. The company had invested worldwide, including in cartels with other international companies.
Essen was the company headquarters. In Germany jailed a number of military officers for selling secrets to Krupp, in what was known as the "Kornwalzer scandal.
Gustav led the firm through World War I , concentrating almost entirely on artillery manufacturing, particularly following the loss of overseas markets as a result of the Allied blockade.
Vickers of England naturally suspended royalty payments during the war Krupp held the patent on shell fuses , but back-payment was made in In , the German government seized Belgian industry and conscripted Belgian civilians for forced labor in the Ruhr.
These were novelties in modern warfare and in violation of the Hague Conventions , to which Germany was a signatory.
During the war, Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft produced 84 U-boats for the German navy, as well as the Deutschland submarine freighter, intended to ship raw material to Germany despite the blockade.
In the Allies named Gustav a war criminal , but the trials never proceeded. After the war, the firm was forced to renounce arms manufacturing.
Gustav attempted to reorient to consumer products, under the slogan "Wir machen alles! The company laid off 70, workers but was able to stave off Socialist unrest by continuing severance pay and its famous social services for workers.
The company opened a dental hospital to provide steel teeth and jaws for wounded veterans. It received its first contract from the Prussian State railway, and manufactured its first locomotive.
In , the Ruhr Uprising occurred in reaction to the Kapp Putsch. Krupp's factory in Essen was occupied, and independent republics were declared, but the German Reichswehr invaded from Westphalia and quickly restored order.
Later in the year, Britain oversaw the dismantling of much of Krupp's factory, reducing capacity by half and shipping industrial equipment to France as war reparations.
In the hyperinflation of , the firm printed Kruppmarks for use in Essen, which was the only stable currency there. France and Belgium occupied the Ruhr and established martial law.
French soldiers inspecting Krupp's factory in Essen were cornered by workers in a garage, opened fire with a machine gun, and killed thirteen.
This incident spurred reprisal killings and sabotage across the Rhineland, and when Krupp held a large, public funeral for the workers, he was fined and jailed by the French.
This made him a national hero, and he was granted an amnesty by the French after seven months. Although Krupp was a monarchist at heart, he cooperated with the Weimar Republic ; as a munitions manufacturer his first loyalty was to the government in power.
He was deeply involved with the Reichswehr 's evasion of the Treaty of Versailles , and secretly engaged in arms design and manufacture.
In Krupp bought Bofors in Sweden as a front company and sold arms to neutral nations including the Netherlands and Denmark.
In , Krupp established Suderius AG in the Netherlands, as a front company for shipbuilding, and sold submarine designs to neutrals including the Netherlands, Spain, Turkey, Finland, and Japan.
German Chancellor Wirth arranged for Krupp to secretly continue designing artillery and tanks, coordinating with army chief von Seeckt and navy chief Paul Behncke.
Krupp was able to hide this activity from Allied inspectors for five years, and kept up his engineers' skills by hiring them out to Eastern European governments including Russia.
Germany, however, chose to violate quotas and pay fines, in order to monopolize the Ruhr's output and continue making high-grade steel. In , Krupp began the manufacture of Widia "Wie Diamant" cobalt-tungsten carbide.
In , the Chrysler Building was capped with Krupp steel. Gustav and especially Bertha were initially skeptical of Hitler, who was not of their class.
Gustav's skepticism toward the Nazis waned when Hitler dropped plans to nationalize business, the Communists gained seats in the 6 November elections, and Chancellor Kurt von Schleicher suggested a planned economy with price controls.
Despite this, as late as the day before President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Hitler Chancellor, Gustav warned him not to do so.
However, after Hitler won power, Gustav became enamoured with the Nazis Fritz Thyssen described him as "a super-Nazi" to a degree his wife and subordinates found bizarre.
Gustav ousted Jews from the organization and disbanded the board, establishing himself as the sole-decision maker.
Hitler visited Gustav just before the Röhm purge in , which among other things eliminated many of those who actually believed in the "socialism" of "National Socialism.
As part of Hitler's secret rearmament program, Krupp expanded from 35, to , employees. Gustav was alarmed at Hitler's aggressive foreign policy after the Munich Agreement , but by then he was fast succumbing to senility and was effectively displaced by his son Alfried.
He was indicted at the Nuremberg Trials but never tried, due to his advanced dementia. He was thus the only German to be accused of being a war criminal after both world wars.
He was nursed by his wife in a roadside inn near Blühnbach until his death in , and then cremated and interred quietly, since his adopted name was at that time one of the most notorious in the American Zone.
As the eldest son of Bertha Krupp , Alfried was destined by family tradition to become the sole heir of the Krupp concern. An amateur photographer and Olympic sailor, he was an early supporter of Nazism among German industrialists, joining the SS in , and never disavowing his allegiance to Hitler.
His father's health began to decline in , and after a stroke in , Alfried took over full control of the firm, continuing its role as main arms supplier to Germany at war.
In , Hitler decreed the Lex Krupp , authorizing the transfer of all Bertha's shares to Alfried, giving him the name "Krupp" and dispossessing his siblings.
This activity became the basis for the charge of "plunder" at the war crimes trial of Krupp executives after the war.AntLux 4FT LED Flush Mount Puff Lights 60W, Lumens, K Neutral White, 48 Inch Integrated Low Profile Flushmount Linear LED Cloud Ceiling Light Fixture for Kitchen, Laundry, ETL Certified. "Am Fluss" Painting by Vera Markgraf posters, art prints, canvas prints, greeting cards or gallery prints. Find more Painting art prints and posters in the ARTFLAKES shop. Genealogy for Helene Fluss ( - d.) family tree on Geni, with over million profiles of ancestors and living relatives. People Projects Discussions Surnames. Vera Fluss (Rudermann) Birthdate: estimated between and Birthplace: Biel/Bienne, Biel District, Canton of Bern, Switzerland: Death: May Switzerland Immediate Family: Daughter of Alfred Rudermann and Rosa Rudermann Wife of Sev Fluss Mother of Private; Private and Private. Managed by: Private User. The concept of a liver fat flush was first introduced in by Dr. Ann Louise Gittleman, who then wrote a book solely on fat flushing in mtrylawlib.com basic idea, according to mtrylawlib.com, is that your liver is the major fat burning organ in your body and maintaining its health is vital for weight loss 1. In den Weinanbaugebieten hat die Weinlese mit den überregional bekannten Weinfesten besondere Anziehungskraft. Jede aufgeführte Wochenendreise in ein Hotel am Fluss ist als Geschenkgutschein mit oder auch ohne vorherige Termin-Bestimmung buchbar. Diese Cookies sind unbedingt erforderlich, um Ihnen die auf unserer Webseite verfügbaren Dienste und Funktionen zur Verfügung zu stellen. Auch können wir mit den Erkenntnissen aus diesen Cookies unsere Anwendungen anpassen, um Ihre Nutzererfahrung auf unserer Webseite Flagueline verbessern.